The large debt Upper Canada had accumulated by the building of expensive canals would be shared by Lower Canada. Papineau went into exile in Paris after the second rebellion failed. These policies favoured r… Here are the main events of the rebellions in both Upper and Lower Canada. The time line of this proposal will include events prior to the actual rebellions as they are significant to the understanding of the causes of these uprisings. In Lower Canada, there were two rebellions, one in 1837 and one in 1838, led by Louis Joseph Papineau. The 1822 attempt to unite Upper and Lower Canada as a measure to have English speaking Canadians form a majority of the population in the Canadas. Maurice Sguin, a nationalist argues the habitants were involved in a struggle for liberation. -instead of accepting the 92 resolutions, the British Colnial Secretary passed the 10 resolutions which revoked their power -Upper Canada was on the upper end of the St.Lawrence River near the east side of Quebec -elected to the Legislative Assembly in 1828 The British, French, and Spanish had hopes for colonies that would yield economic benefit and also had ... in the interests of colonization in the Americas. Another reason for the rebellions was a cholera epidemic in Lower Canada brought by the British and Irish. Lord Durham was named governor on May of 1839 and was in placed in charge of establishing an inquiry into the rebellions. Two of Mackenzie's supporters were hanged, ninety-two were deported, and twenty-six were banished from Canada. The crop failures affected Upper Canada greatly by 1837. The thesis of this research is that a range of factors attributed to the rebellions in Canada, each conflict had various affects on different social groups. Both rebellions were motivated by frustrations with political reform. The research in this proposal primarily focuses on the rebellions that took place in both upper and Lower Canada during 1838. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Mackenzie saw this as an opportunity to lead a rebellion of his own. British Loyalists ... Canada; "...the rural Clear Grits of Upper Canada, ... and lower taxes, ... ... life in the colonies. Here you can order a professional work. Many scholars restrict themselves to one perspective when analyzing these rebellions. These groups reacted in there own way to the problems that effected them. After the War of 1812, there was growing discontent in Upper Canada with the elite clique of politicians and officials known as the Family Compact. Causes of the rebellion in Upper Canada -The rebellions led to the appointment of Lord Durham and the Durham Report -The source of the problems was the conflict between French and English. Nearly 100 rebels were also captured. After the rebellions, Both Papineau and Mckenzie fled to the United States, leaving their follower rebels to face their punishments. Hundreds of other Reformers fled the country to escape punishment. Some wished to declare Independence where some were fed up with economic conditions; while others wished to have a greater influence in the political realm some had fears of racial discrimination. Canada evolved into a nation during the 18th and 19th centuries. Cultural divisions aggravated the struggle because Anglophone, Protestant people controlled the council and Francophone, Catholic Canadiens were the majority of the Assembly. The “discovery” by Columbus of the New World in 1492 was followed by the establishments of European colonies with French initially in the north and down the Mississippi. As a result of the rebellions, Britain sent Lord Durham to look into what really caused the rebellion. Those rebels who were arrested in Upper Canada following the 1837 uprisings were put on trial, with most being found guilty of insurrection against the Crown, and several of the ring-leaders were publicly hanged; most notably Samuel Lount and Peter Matthews. ( Log Out /  From this inquiry came a list of recommendations submitted to the parliament in London (Outlett, 275). Forums. As a result, the rebels would either have a death penalty or be transported to Bermuda/ Australia for 7 years. Upper and Lower Canada were formed by the Constitutional Act of 1791 in response to the wave of United Empire Loyalists moving north from the United States into the French-speaking province of Quebec following the American Revolution (1765-1783) . More than 880 people were jailed on suspicion of treason. C. cvc121. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Moderates hoped to reform the political system, while radicals yearned for a restructuring of both administration and society (Read , 19-21). This article left the nation powerless when the British denied the colonies access to West Indian markets. In his report, he recommended that the Unification of the Lower and Upper Canada was of paramount importance and that they should form the Province of Canada, and this would help in the assimilation of the French-Speaking citizens into the culture and the ways of the British Empire. A governor in 1836 made sure a party that he favoured won the majority of the seats. The thesis of this research is that a range of factors attributed to the rebellions in Canada, each conflict had various affects on different social groups. The French support of the colonials during the American Revolution was essential to their ultimate success in defeating the British troops and securing their future as an independent nation. In one fight, 3 canadiens were shot by English soldiers. Rebellion in Upper Canada (1837) Thread starter cvc121; Start date Nov 11, 2014; Tags 1837 canada rebellion upper; Home. Start studying Rebellions of 1837-1838. The Upper Canada Rebellion was an insurrection against the oligarchic government of the British colony of Upper Canada (present-day Ontario) in December 1837.While public grievances had existed for years, it was the rebellion in Lower Canada (present-day Quebec), which started the previous month, that emboldened rebels in Upper Canada to revolt. These were the main reasons why the rebellions occurred. However statistical data of this kind is often incomplete and unreliable. The French canadiens blamed the British for it because they believed they should have immigrated after the epidemic, which was over in Britain at the time. 10 The British theologian C. S. Lewis suggested ... it into a more specific form: Lower grade energy resources will always ... ... that made the colonists’ dreams begin to dim. Mackenzie and some other rebels fled to the US where with the help of some American volunteers made many raids against Upper Canada, keeping the border in turmoil for almost a year. David Creighton again supports the idea of a long played out commerce battle between Agrarian Interests (represented Mackenzie and his followers) and the Executive and Legislative Council (controlled by the British elite) whom held Commercial Interests. It is important to understand that different scholars defend different views on which causes actually attributed to the rebellion. Political Scientist Daniel Salee studied the revolutionary characteristics of the rebellion believed the patriots were a liberal bourgeois whose demands for economic reform and there denunciation of the corrupt seigniorial system won them the support of the habitants. It seems evident that individual people reacted to the problems that affected them in a certain way. The English would gain a slight population majority which would be further reinforced by the arrival of new immigrants. He believes this attitude is evident in the tight grasp the British had on the justice system, in there educational reforms, and assimilation politics (Franices, 265-266). What happened and what caused it to? The English would gain a majority and eventually assimilate the French. The causes of each rebellion are unique, and in both cases multiple conflicts within the social realm occurred. The question driving this research is what caused the insurrections in Upper and Lower Canada during 1837 and 1838. Here you can order a professional work. This was followed by more looting and destruction of the countryside. Why did the rebellions occur? A study of individual scholars an there ideologies is important to the understanding of there viewpoints on which causes affected the rebellions. Liberal Nationalist scholars support the idea that the rebellion was an attempt to gain independence from Britain (Creighton 323). His temperament and conviction led him to the point where he not only advocated armed rebellion against the colonial government but led it. It is significant to note that no theory is generally accepted on the causes of these rebellions. Bond Head tried to buy peace with the reformers by appointing two of them, Dr. Rolph and Robert Baldwin to the executive council. In 1836, the demands of the reformers for a responsible government were again refused by the Crown and a new governor general for the province, Sir Francis Bond Head, was in charge of delivering the news. There were key people and sanctions during this evolution, the Crown, the American Revolution, the Loyalists of Upper Canada, the francophones of Lower Canada and the Radicals responsible ... ... Canadians, pp.6-7, 1996) Finally, their overall economic policy states that "Canada should constitute an economic ... the casual Canadian political observer, the ... trade. In Upper Canada there were different reasons why the rebellions occurred. Free Samples and Examples of Essays, Homeworks and any Papers, Filed Under: Term Papers Tagged With: canada, Politics. Change ). During the early stages of the rebellions, 2 rebels and 1 loyalist died but many other rebels were executed by the government. Originating in modern-day Quebec, (then called Lower Canada) this independence movement was sparked by a rebellion against the Crown by the “Parti patriote”, or Patriote Party and their followers from 1837 to 1838. North American History. These groups reacted in there own way to the problems that effected them. By taking elements from several different schools of thought and using them to explain the actions of individual classes to there distinct problems it is possible to gain a better understanding of the true nature of these rebellions. This is not an example of the work written by professional academic writers. Scholars for Upper Canada such as Stanely Ryerson a Marxist support the idea that the rebellion was a bourgeoisie democratic revolution. The two rebellions had similar causes. With the union of these two colonies into one state Upper Canada had the most to gain. The Upper Canada Rebellion also ended quite unsuccessful. One of the outcomes from these rebellions was the restructuring of the Canadian Parliament. For Lower Canada some of the scholars include Thomas Chapis who believed the rebellion was solely the cause the British governor in conflict with the French assembly. that was not worth the american live 2. Analyzing multiple scholars from different schools of thoughts is essential in order to understand which conflicts affected which people. Historians from various schools of thought continually disagree on the factors of causation leading up to the rebellions. But they we… The Rebellions of 1837 and 1838 in Upper and Lower Canada are remarkable episodes in Canadian history. This resulted in small groups of well off men in each colony having a great deal of power. Papineau and his Patriotes demanded many things from the British such as control over the ways that the revenue was spent in the colony and responsible government. In both Upper and Lower Canada, there were many struggles for power in the governor appointed council and the elected assembly. CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF To what Extent did the Rebellions of Upper and Lower Canada (1837) Lead to Canada's Responsible Government in 1867 Why Was the Provisional Government Overthrown in Russia Nicholas II didn’t have the political will, didn’t have the emperor’s charisma … He believed many farmers had American born parents who instilled a hatred for the British administration (Read 123). Three days later, there was a small confrontation in Brantford where the insurgents were also put down quickly. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student. The colonial governor would have to choose the executive council from elected member of the majority party in the Legislative. The arrival of European settlers in the late 1500s-early 1600s in North America disrupted the Native American tribes that had been living peacefully there for centuries.  The rebellion of 1837 were armed uprisings that took place in Upper and Lower Canada, which is now Ontario and Quebec, in 1837 to 1838. For more information about the Rebellions of 1837 and 1838, flip through this newspaper and you will find more about the rebellions. ( Log Out /  The rebellions of 1837–38. A group of rich English merchants called the “Château Clique” were appointed by the British governor to hold power in the council, which meant the governor decided to always appoint members in this group to be in the council. The British, French, and Spanish had sought after these new found lands ... ... the reality is that its supporting political, economic, and military structures were more powerful ... set hierarchically below man). Also, beginning in 1820, the Parti canadien followed by the Parti patriote, both of which were seeking more democratic government, controlled the majority of the seats in the elected assembly. You must cite our web site as your source. Hope we can find out though . In a T­chart, list reasons for United States intervention in the Boxer Rebellion. These rebellions were much more then a simple reaction to Russell’s Resolutions and corruption in the Family Compact (Outlett, 269). "In Upper Canada, popular discontent centred around the government's land policies, its attempts to encourage commercial and industrial development, and its favouritism toward the Church of … Other sources will include scholarly internet sources, database articles, history text books and online journals. (Find a price that suits your requirements). Multiple problems mixed with multiple classes caused for a range of reactions. Political unrest developed in both Upper and Lower Canada soon after the War of 1812. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Who’s behind it all? The ramifications of the Canadian insurrections during 1837 and 1838 would unite two nations and change the future of Canada forever. Many factors were accountable to this change which includes the Loyalists migration north and of course the Constitutional Acts of 1791and 1867. Fernard Outlett spends significant time analyzing the agricultural crisis in Lower Canada and believed the struggle to be a nationalistic movement for the French habitant, whom supported professional elite ambitious for political gains. Following the Rebellion in Upper Canada "The rebellion had failed. The question driving this research is what caused the insurrections in Upper and Lower Canada during 1837 and 1838. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. In Lower Canada many French habitants were suffering from famine and the accumulation of huge debts due to poor harvests. The British were extremely fearful of the ideas sprung from Napoleon and the French revolution. The first recommendation would later become known as ‘responsible government’. 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